WORKING WITH COVID-19 VACCINES GLOBALLY

Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines

Around the world scientists and researchers are analyzing 44 vaccines in clinical sessions on humans, and almost 92 preclinical vaccines are being tested in animals. Almost 150 vaccines for covid-19 are in progress across the world.

Generally, a vaccine takes up to 10 to 15 years to be available in market for public use. Vaccine for mumps is the fastest developed vaccine. This mumps vaccine took 4 years in 1960s era. Developing a vaccine is not an easy task. The vaccine has to go through clinical trials of three phases before they can be released for civil use. After the vaccine is fully developed and passed all the trials then the vaccine is sent to regulatory agency for approval. Well, this is not the end. after the vaccine is approved, there are many aspects to take care like scaling of production and distribution, and also which country should the vaccine be provided and lastly at what price should the vaccine be sold.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is similarly harmonizing international actions to formulate a vaccine, and is expecting to deliver around 2 billion doses of covid-19 vaccine by the end of 2021. Under Operation Warp Speed initiative, the U.S. government sponsored $10 billion and aims to deliver 300 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine by January 2021.

The Trump Government is pressuring the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to rapidly certify a vaccine. It is also propelling states to organize vaccine allotment sites from November 1, 2020. Some researches are saying that these quick decisions may cause a risk.

As of now, there are 29 vaccines in phase I human clinical trials, 14 in phase II trials and 11 vaccines in phase III trials. Below are some of the vaccines developed by important company’s or institutions.

Working with Vaccines

Vaccine Name:  NVX-CoV2373

This vaccine is being developed by Novavax, a biotechnology company in Gaithersburg, Maryland. On September 24, Novavax published that they are entering phase III trials in United Kingdom. The vaccine is given to around 10,000 people.

Vaccine Name: JNJ-78436735

This vaccine is developed by Johnson& Johnson Company. On September 23, Johnson & Johnson declared that they are going to conduct phase III trials for around 60,000 adults from various countries. The trial were paused on October 12 because on of the candidate is affected with unexplained illness.

 Vaccine Name: mRNA-1273

mRNA-1273 vaccine is created by Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health.

Vaccine Name: BNT162b2

This vaccine is also one of the potential vaccine. It is developed by both the Pfizer and BioNTech. There are hopes that the pfizer and biotech will supply around 1.3 billion doses by the ned of 2021. Presently, four US-based companies vaccine are in crucial phase III clinical trials. They are Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and Novavax.

Vaccine Name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222

This vaccine is developed by Oxford University in collaboration with the AstraZeneca, a biopharmaceutical Company. On September 8, AstraZeneca halted the trials because of an unfavorable reaction in one of the participants of U.K. Butler later on September 23 these trains are again resumed in U.K., South Africa, Brazil, and India but still paused in U.S. This vaccine is popularly known asCovishield in India. In India, the serum Institute of India (SII) is working with Oxford and Astrazeneca vaccine and the vaccine is in the final stage of human clinical trials. Phase III trials of this vaccine will be declared in November- December.

Vaccine Name: CoronaVac

This is developed by Sinkvac, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company, in collaboration with Brazilian research center Butantan. This vaccine is also undergoing phase III trails. Sinovac will also conduct phase three trials in Indonesia and Bangladesh. Other Chinese vaccine manufacturers are Cansino Biologics, Sinopharm. These are also under human clinical trials.

Vaccine Name: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

This is an old tuberculosis vaccine. This was developed by the largest child health research institute in Australia, in collaboration with the University of Melbourne. During this BRACE trial scientists are conducting test whether this vaccine will help in protecting people from coronavirus.

Vaccine Name: Sputnik V

Sputnik V Vaccine is developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Moscow. Spot on V was approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on 11 August for use. This vaccine created quite a lot of controversy.

Vaccine Name: Covaxin, Covishield

Coming to india, Covaxin is being developed by Bharat Biotech in association with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It is in Phase 2 clinical trial in the country. In the month of  July, the Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila started experimenting a DNA-based vaccine transmitted through a skin patch. Serum Institue is developing Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and it is called Covishield in India. From the past weeks, the coronavirus infection cases are steeply decreasing and the union Health  minister of India Harsha Vardhan stated that Covid-19 vaccine is expected in the early months of 2021 in India.

NEET 2020 EXAMINATIONS and RESULTS – IN DETAIL

NEET 2020 RESULTS

NEET 2020 RESULTSNational Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) is the sole entrance examination to get admission in the medical and dental colleges in India. This year, NEET UG 2020 cut off score is anticipated to be higher as the number of applicants who took the test was more, and also students got more time to prepare because of Covid-19 pandemic.

The NEET 2020 question papers are accessible in English, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Bengali, and Assamese languages. The NEET 2020 exam had a total of 180 multiple choice questions and are divided into three sections – Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Botany + Zoology) with 45 questions each for each subject. The total marks for NEET 2020 are 720. As per the official NEET marking scheme 2021, 4 marks to be allotted for the correct answer, while 1 mark to be subtracted for the wrong attempt and 0 marks for unanswered questions. The total duration for the NEET Examination is 3 hours. Candidates are instructed to use only black/blue ballpoint pen to mark their answers in the one sheet.

 NEET 2020 Examination was held on September 13. The aspirants who couldn’t take NEET exam on September 13 either because they were infected with Covid-19 or due to being stuck in containment zones are given a chance to appear in NEET exam which will be held on October 14. National Testing Agency (NTA) is responsible for creating results of NEET Examinations. The NEET 2020 results were expected to release on October 12 but Supreme Court on October 12 directed National Testing Agency (NTA) to declare results on October 16 along with the results of the aspirants who will take their NEET exam on October 14.

The supreme court took this decision because of the request made by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to allow the aspirants who couldn’t attend the exam held on September 13.

The entrance examination which was conducted on 13 September was attended by around 13 lakh candidates although 15.79 lakh candidates registered. Roughly 85 to 90 per cent of aspirants took the examination that was conducted at over 3,800 centers across the country on September 13. A total of  80,055 MBBS, 26,949 BDS, 52,720 AYUSH, and 525 BVSc and AH seats are offered by various colleges in India.  A total of 15 AIIMS and 2 JIPMER institutes grants admission based on the marks and rank secured by candidates in NEET Examination and also around 1.5 lakh colleges grants the admission based on NEET results.

Generally, NEET candidate score varies every year. It depends on the difficulty level of the NEET question paper, level of preparation of aspirants and number of students appearing for the exam. The cut-off score is higher if the paper is easy and vice versa. Candidates belonging to general or unreserved category need to score 50 per cent or more to qualify the medical entrance examination. The cut off for unreserved PH candidates is set at 45 per cent, while for SC, ST, OBC category it is 40 per cent.

NEET counselling under the 15 per cent all-India quota (AIQ) comprise seats at government colleges (except those in Jammu and Kashmir), central and deemed universities, seats reserved for wards of insured persons (IP quota) in Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) medical colleges and seats available at the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) Pune. The remaining 85 per cent seats are reserved for the state quota.

Six states had over one lakh candidates each in NEET 2020. They are Maharashtra: 2,28,914, Uttar Pradesh: 1,66,582, Karnataka: 1,19,587, Tamil Nadu: 1,17,990, Kerala:1,15,959, and Rajasthan with 1,08,537 candidates.

As per 2019 NEET Exams cut off, students who secured 701 marks or above got the first rank. Those who secured marks between 690 and 681 were ranked between 20 and 88. Rajasthan’s Nalin Khandelwal crowned NEET result 2019 by scoring 701 marks out of the total 720 marks. Overall, Rajasthan was the best-performing state in the NEET exam result last year. There were 20 women in the top 50 list.

STEPS TO CHECK NEET 2020 RESULTS

 Step 1: Visit the official NEET. Website https://ntaneet.nic.in

Step 2: Click on the link for NEET result

Step 3: Enter roll number, date of birth and submit

Step 4: Results will appear on the screen

Step 5: Download and take a print of your result.

HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN MAKING OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that gives importance to the advancement of machines based on intelligence. To solve issues or tasks that need human thinking or man’s intelligence AI is being used. Like other subjects, Artificial Intelligence also possesses a father. The father of Artificial intelligence (AI) is John McCarthy.

The world is observing speedy developments in AI, and Machine Learning. Some daily devices we use like Google Assistant, Amazon’s Alexa, Microsoft’s Cortana, Apple’s Siri are some of the known AI assistants. AI has many features like problem-solving, machine learning, planning, and language recognition.

IMPORTANCE / BENEFITS OF AI

  • AI expands intelligence to existing outputs and makes them productive
  • AI has the potential to interpret large loads of data quickly
  • Reduces the number of human errors.
  • AI performs well using expert networks and deep learning applications
  • AI has various automate systems
  • Faster and more accurate decisions when compared to manpower
  • AI has a Voice and image recognition system
  • Helps in reducing repetitive work and avoids overlapping
  • AI delivers digital service
  • Collects, stores, and processes various information
  • Catches, processes, and reacts to languages i.e., speech to text, text to speech
  • Doesn’t need breaks unlike humans and can work 24/7

TYPES OF AI

Artificial Intelligence is broadly divided into 3 types. They are narrow or weak AI, strong or general AI, and conscious or artificial superintelligence. The third type of AI, which is conscious AI is recently introduced. Analytic, text, functional, interactive, and visual are 5 types of AI systems. They can be used solely or can be used by combining a few systems.

HOW AI CAN AFFECT THE WORLD

By using Artificial Intelligence one of the main disadvantages is unemployment. The jobs of many employees will be at stake for the next couple of decades. Improving AI will be a tremendous benefit to the healthcare industry. AI can assist to point out tumours in X-rays, help researchers and scientists to detect genetic series. AI helps to formulate further productive drugs or medication for treatments. By using AI, the surveillance system will be great. AI has a feature called facial recognition, since the past few years, this feature is widely being used even in mobile phones too. There are neural networks which are used to create duplicate images, these are impossible to differentiate whether they are real or not. The neural networks can even manipulate a person’s voice too. These tools became major factors for circulating fake news. Since the past few years, there is a desire to create driverless cars. Through AI it is possible and also robots can be created for delivery services or home use.

AI IN INDIA

On October 5, 2020, India started a summit named Responsible AI for Social Empowerment (RAISE) 2020.  The summit motive is how AI can be used for transforming healthcare, Education, Agriculture, and other categories. Tamil Nadu became the first state in India to create policies related to blockchain, ethical AI, and cybersecurity. Apart from Tamil-nadu, other states like Telangana, Karnataka, West Bengal, and Maharashtra took initiatives towards Artificial Intelligence.

In this fast progressing world AI is required. There are many pros of AI and also cons. AI poses a threat if it is used negatively. So, it is the responsibility of government to take precautionary measures to prevent malicious events.

 

TOYOTA URBAN CRUISER

Toyota Urban Cruiser
Toyota Urban Cruiser
Toyota Urban Cruiser

Toyota Motor Corporation is an Automobile Manufacturer and this is a Japanese company with its headquarters in Toyota, Aichi of Japan. Toyota company’s cars and trucks are sold in more than 170 nations and it has 67 manufacturing associations with more than 3,70,000 employees. The corporation was founded by Kiichiro Toyota in 1937. In 2012, Toyota evolved to be the planet’s first automobile manufacturer to deliver more than 10 million automobiles in a year. Based on 2018 unit sales, in Japan, Toyota is the biggest Automobile Manufacturer and globally it is the second-largest automobile manufacturer. The present chairman of Toyota Motor Corporation is Takeshi Uchiyamada and Alio Toyoda is the present serving president of Toyota company.  In 1999, Toyota Motor Corporation produced the world’s first hybrid-powered vehicle, Prius. Pirus is an electric gasoline hybrid vehicle. Lexus is the luxury version brand of Toyota. Some tremendous Toyota products are 1992 Camry, 1960 land cruiser FJ40, 1964 stout, 1965 Corona, 1967 2000GT, 1990 Lexus LS400, 1993 Supra Turbo, 2012 Lexus LFA, Celica ST, Corolla GT-S, MR2, NASCAR Camry, the Tundra, Lexus RX300, Mark X, Sienna, Highlander, and Tacoma.

TOYOTA URBAN CRUISER

Toyota Urban Cruiser
Toyota Urban Cruiser

 

Toyota Urban Cruiser is a compact SUV. As of now, it is accessible in three variants with both manual and automatic transmission alternative for customers. Three variants are Mid, High, and Premium.

SPECIFICATIONS

  • Auto air conditioning
  • 60:40 Split Rare Seats.
  • Side Door Cladding
  • Number plate Garnish
  • Cruise Control
  • Rare Bump Garnish
  • Display and Audio for Reverse Parking Camera.
  • Automatic Rain-sensing Wipers
  • Electro Chromatic Rear View Mirror
  • Quick Entry with Engine push start/stop button

ENGINE

Toyota Urban Cruiser Engine
Toyota Urban Cruiser Engine

The Toyota Urban Cruiser is obtainable with 1.5 liter, four-cylinder petrol engine which generates 105PS of power and 138 of torque. The engine arrives with a five-speed manual and a four-speed automatic. All automatic variants obtain a developed lithium-ion battery and an integrated starter generator. The mileage for manual cars is 17.03 kmpl while the mirage is 18.76 kmpl for automatic cars.

PRICE

The Urban Cruiser price starts with Rs. 8.41 lakh and increases to Rs.11.55 lakh. The urban cruiser offers 6 Trims.

  • Urban Cruiser Mid Grade MT costs Rs. 8.41 lakh,
  • High-Grade MT costs Rs. 9.16 lakh,
  • Mid Grade AT costs Rs. 9.81 lakh,
  • Premium Grade MT costs Rs. 9.81 lakh
  • Premium Grade MT Dual Tone costs Rs. 9.98 lakh
  • High-Grade AT costs Rs. 10.66 lakh
  • Premium Grade AT costs Rs. 11.31 lakh
  • Premium Grade AT Dual Tone costs Rs. 11.55 lakh

COLOURS AND EXTERIOR

 Urban Cruiser is available in six monotone colors, one dual-tone color, and two special dual-tone colors.

  • Sunny White
  • Rustic Brown
  • Suave Silver
  • Spunky Blue
  • Groovy Orange
  • Iconic Grey
  • Spunky Blue with Sizzling Black Roof
  • Rustic Brown with Sizzling Black Roof
  • Groovy Orange with Sunny White Roof.

Urban Cruiser has 16- inch diamond cut alloy wheels along with gunmetal grey roof rails. The headlamps are designed with dual-chamber LED projector with chrome tones and are completed by two slat wedge cuts with chrome and grey finish.

INTERIOR

The steering is wrapped with leather. It has a dual-tone interior and completed with fabric dark brown seats. It has four door speakers, Seven inch Smart Playacts touchscreen audio system along with Android Auto and Apple Caray, Smart Phone-based Navigation, two tweeters, five color combo meter vibe lights, upper cooled groove box, and also front Centre sliding armrest with storage. Coming to the safety features, it contains dual front airbags, advanced body structure, reverse parking camera and audio, ABS with EBD, Hill hold control, ISOFIX child seat restraint system and anti-pinch driver side power window.

CONCLUSION

Urban Cruiser has a well built cabin and it has adequate spacious interior. It comes with easy and light driving dynamics. One of the setback for Urban Cruiser is it has only petrol variant, the other competitors has much more features when compare to Urban Cruiser. The other late natives for Toyota Urban Cruiser are Maruti Suzuki Vitara Breeza, Ford EcoSport, Mahindra Thar, Hyundai Creta, Maruti Suzuki S-Cross, Mahindra XUV300, Hyundai Venue, Tata Nexon, and Kia Sonet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FROM A SINGLE COVID-19 CASE TO A MILLION CASES AND THE DOWNTREND

INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status

The first cases of coronavirus are reported around December 2019 in Wuhan city of Hubei province, China. Several researchers and health scientists expressed that the outbreak of virus may have arisen from pangolins or bats. While others implied that the virus is originated from the Wuhan animal wet market. Putting claims aside, there is no particular evidence or proof for the origin of coronavirus. World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.

Coronaviruses are a group of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) viruses that affect both humans and animals. The SARS Virus which rose hastily during the 2002-2003 period belongs to this family. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is quoted as SARS-CoV. Now, the present Novel coronavirus is named as SARS-CoV-2. The term Covid-19 is a disease that is caused by the coronavirus.

SARS-CoV-2 spreads from one individual to others by human touch or contact. For example, if a COVID-19 infected patient is near you with less than 6 feet distance, then there are high chances for you to get infected.

SYMPTOMS

There are some particularly reported cases where patients are identified to be infected with COVID-19 but the victims don’t possess any of the above-mentioned symptoms. About 80% of patients recovered without undergoing any special treatment.

NORMAL SYMPTOMS

  • Running Nose
  • Fever
  • Dry Cough
  • Tiredness

MODERATE SYMPTOMS

  • Severe headaches
  • Sore Throat
  • Body pains
  • Losing sense of smell or taste
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nasal congestion

SEVERE SYMPTOMS

  • Frequent pain in the chest
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Sometimes

Tracking Covid-19 in INDIA

 China cautioned the WHO about unspecified pneumonia circulating the virus in Wuhan on December 31, 2019. On 7th January 2020 WHO officials published a statement saying that the virus is labelled as 2019n-CoV. The first death from virus took place in China on January 11.

JANUARY, 2020

  • On the 30th of January, the first case reported in India from Kerala and it is a student from Wuhan University. The next 2 days India airlifts Indian citizens from Wuhan including 7 Maldives natives.

FEBRUARY

  • After 2 other cases were reported Kerala govt. declared virus as a state Calamity.
  • On February 4, India cancelled existing visas for foreigners and Chinese Nationals.
  • WHO notified that the infection by this virus is named as COVID-19.
  • On Feb, 19 the first case of the virus tested negative.

MARCH

  • As of 2nd March, two more were reported in Kerala
  • The number of coronavirus cases reached 50 on March 10.
  • March 11 is the day when WHO proclaimed Covid-19 as a pandemic.
  • India experienced first death from the virus on 12th March in Karnataka.
  • In just 4 days, the volume of cases reached 100.
  • On March, 22 ‘Janata Curfew’ came into existence for 14 hours.
  • The lockdown is inflicted on March 25 till April 14.

APRIL

  • The casualties volume crossed 100.
  • The Indian government extended the lockdown till 3rd of May.
  • On April, 29 the death toll surpassed 1000.

MAY

  • The lockdown in India is extended for another 2 weeks on May 1st and based on the proportion of cases the places were divided into red, orange and green zones.
  • 50,000 confirmed coronavirus cases and Phase I of Vande Bharat Mission took place to evacuated citizens from foreign countries.
  • The lockdown is again extended to May 31st by government.
  • On May 19, the COVID-19 cases crossed 1 lakh.

JUNE

  • WHO instructed to wear face masks while going out or in crowded places.
  • On June, 8, the number of cases reached 2,50,00 with 7,200 casualties. Unlock 1.0 appeared into force.
  • India get ahead of UK and became the 4th horribly affected country with cases crossing over 3 lakhs.
  • A total of 5 lakh COVID-19 confirmed cases were reported in India.

JULY

  • On July 1st, Unlock 2.0 came into existence.
  • As of 6th July, USA reported more than 28 lakh cases and Brazil reported around 16 lakh cases. India pushed down Russia and became the Third worst affected country by coronavirus with 6.97 lakh cases.
  • Bharat Biotech Pharmaceutical Company started the first clinical trials of India’s first native vaccine, Covaxin.

AUGUST

  • Unlock 3.0 guidelines came into force on August 1st.
  • Even before the completion of phase III trials of the vaccine, Russia released Sputnik V vaccine for civilian/public use.
  • India reported with more than 3 million COVID-19 cases.
  • On August, 26, clinical trails of covishield were started by Serum Institute.
  • Phase 4.0 unlock protocols are released on August 29.
  • Worldwide COVID-19 cases crossed the mark of 25 million. India reported 78,761 new cases in a single day on August, 30.

SEPTEMBER

  • The first case of reinfection was discovered in the city of Bengaluru.
  • India with a total of 4.1 Million/41.13 lakh cases became 2nd disastrous hit country by coronavirus pushing down Brazil.
  • Clinical trials of ‘Covi-Shield’ by Serum Institute were abruptly stopped due to some unexplained illness.
  • September, 11, alone recorded a total of 97,570 new cases.
  • A total of more than 5 million cases are reported in India and last 1 Million cases are registered in just 11 days and the USA with 6.8 Million cases.
  • Reasonably, more than 1 lakh patients recovered from Covid-19 on September, 22.
  • As of 27, September India reported more than 50 lakh recoveries from COVID-18 COVID-19 and just in 11 days around 10 lakh people were recovered.

Current Status

As of today, 8 October 2020 the horribly affected nations by SARS-CoV-2 are the United States of America with 7.58 Million cases and 212K fatalities, followed by India with 6.76 Million cases and 105K deaths, then Brazil with 5 Million cases and 148K victims. Considering the deaths, Brazil pushes down India and occupies the second place. India is the one and only country which is awfully affected in the whole Asian sub-continent by 2019-nCoV.

Coming to India, the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for more than 60% of total COVID-19 cases. Lakshadweep Islands of India is free from Coronavirus. In the recent days there is a significant fall in the number of cases reported across India.

Covid-19 Downtrend
Covid-19 Downtrend

As we can see in the graph, the number of COVID-19 cases is hastily shrinking since the last 2-3 weeks. The twitter is trending with #IndiaFightsCorona hashtag because of its significant 85% recovery rate. The Indian government and also the citizens of India become aware of the pandemic and are following social distancing rules thoroughly and the result can be seen above with the significant decrease of covid-19 infections and increased recovery rates.

THE JOURNEY FROM FAILED TRIALS TO OFFICIAL INCURSION INTO INDIAN ARMED FORCES: NIRBHAY MISSILE

Nirbhay_Missile

Nirbhay_MissileNirbhay Missile is developed and advanced by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), a sub-branch under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). DRDO is an agency whose principal task is to develop and evolve defence systems, weapons, machinery and to supply them to Indian Armed Forces. Nirbhay Missile is an all-weather, long-range and subsonic Cruise Missile. The launcher/carrier for Nirbhay Missile System is built and designed by Tata Motors Limited.

CHARACTERISTICS/FEATURES OF NIRBHAY MISSILE

LENGTH                          : 6 mts/20 feet
WIDTH                            : 0.52 mts/1.7feet
ENGINE                           : Stage I: solid rocket booster
                                          Stage II: Turbofan Turbojet
MASS                               :1,500 kg/3,300lb
WINGSPAN                      :2.7 mts/8.9 feet
RANGE                             :up to 1,000 km/ 620 miles
CARRIER/ VEHICLE       :TATA LPTA 5252-12×12 Vehicle
PROPELLANT                 :STAGE I: Solid Fuel
                                          STAGE II: Liquid Fuel
WARHEAD                       : 200-300 KG (NUCLEAR Or CONVENTIONAL)

TRIALS AND TESTS

  1. The first trial of Nirbhay Missile was held at Chandipur Integrated Test Range in the state of Odisha on March 12, 2013, but after reaching the second stage of momentum the missile drifted out from the original path and its engine was disconnected in order to prevent any further risks.
  2. The second trial was held on October 17, 2014, again from Integrated Test Range located in the district of Balasore and the Nirbhay Missile was followed by Indian Fighter Jet Jaguar in order to capture the video. This second trial was successful and the Missile travelled for over 70 minutes.
  3. During its third trial, the Missile was crashed into the Bay of Bengal after travelling only 128 km on 16 October, 2015. The purpose of this trial was to examine the low flying potential of the Missile.
  4. The fourth trial took place on December 21, 2016, and there were no official records about the aftermath of the test but it was broadcasted by numerous sources that the examination was unsuccessful due to Missile’s Hardware problem.
  5. On November 7, 2017, the fifth trial took place from Chandipur and it was victorious as it fulfilled all the purposes and the Missile travelled around 647 km. In this trail, Turbojet engine is utilized in lieu of Turbofan engine.
  6. The sixth trial was successful and was carried on April 15, 2019, and DRDO itself demonstrated that the test was successful as it fulfilled each and every mission.
  7. The Seventh trail is planned to launch next month ( November 2020) and after the completion of the test, Nirbhay Missile will be officially installed into Indian Armed Forces.

Nirbhay Missile is a subsonic cruise Missile which operates from the surface to air. The Nirbhay is a broadly significant land-based missile in India. Nirbhay Missile possesses the sea-skimming skill and loitering capability, which implies that the weapon can move around the target and can conduct numerous operations or exercises and can reposition it. Nirvhay Missile sets off like a rocket but after the motor falls off it turns into an aircraft by stationing a wing set and a turbine engine. It becomes difficult for radar to detect this missile as it can fly tree-top layer and Nirbhay Missile can smash a target from any direction once it is near the target and it operates on the fire-and-forget system. The Nirbhay Missile can be launched from any source like land, submarines, warships, air-borne bombers.

SCHOOLS SET TO REOPEN FROM OCTOBER 15, 2020

SOP for Schoolos Reopening

SOP for Schoolos ReopeningThe education ministry on October 5, 2020, published guidelines which are to be fulfilled while reopening schools. The country is in lockdown since March 2020 and it is being revoked by launching unlock phases. Now, through unlock 5.0, the central government circulated protocols for reopening of schools, colleges and other educational institutions. Nonetheless, the final decision is bestowed to States and Union Territories whether they want to reopen the educational institutions or not.

Education Minister further tweeted that States and Union Territories should develop their own Standard Operating procedures(SOPs) viewing health and safety precautions for reopening of educational institutions. Central Education Minister Dr. Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank further affirmed that students will simply attend the school only with the approval of their parents or respective guardians. Those who don’t have access to physical schooling can resume taking online classes. Students are certified to go to school precisely on voluntary motive. Nevertheless, the lecturers and students who inhabit in containment or red zones, are not permitted to visit schools until the situation gets better.

The school management needs to supervise and execute sufficient cleaning and disinfecting methods around school premises. Each and everything and the entire place on school campus should be disinfected thoroughly using disinfectants and sanitizers. Thermal scanners for examining body temperatures are mandatory at the school entrance. The school Managements are highly recommended to establish committees for hygiene examination, emergency care and support. Educational societies should acquire all contact information and should communicate with closest hospitals, and emergency healthcare centres. Schools must ensure that there is adequate airflow in indoor spaces. Students, teachers, and other staffs at school inescapably have to wear face mask/ cover throughout the whole time and it is also better to wear gloves. Carrying a sanitizer always is an advantage.

Schools need to make sure that the timing of entry and exit of students should not overlap and everyone from pupils to non-teaching staff must obey social distancing rules. So the schools need to introduce a fresh seating structure that coordinates with social distancing regulations. Obtaining information about the student’s health is one of the prominent duty of their respective schools and during school hours if anyone shows the symptoms of COVID-19 the schools are instructed to interpret the procedures handed out by the central government. As per government suggestions, the schools with the midday meal program should serve the food which needs to be hot and well cooked.

The States has the responsibility to formulate a new academic calendar with planned classes, holidays and examinations. The government has announced that till next 2-3 weeks there will be neither teaching nor assessment and told teachers to enlighten students considering pandemic and to nurture their emotional strength. All schools in New Delhi will continue to be shut until the end of October. As for higher institutions, clearance is given to only PhD and PG students in science and technology with lab work or experiments.

Honda Highness CB350 – Your Highness has finally arrived

Honda_H_ness

Honda_H_nessHonda Motorcycle and Scooter India (HMSI) has finally announced the upcoming launch of the Honda Highness CB350 cruiser in India on 30th September, 2020. The bike will be released in 2 variations, namely DLX and DLX Pro, at a starting price of approximately Rs 1.90 lakh, giving a tough competition to the greatest designs of bikes like the Royal Enfield Classic 350 , the Benelli Imperiale 400 and the Jawa.

The official launch will be by next month. Pre-bookings for the Honda Highness CB350 have begun from 30th of September, 2020 itself at the organization’s official website for a token amount of Rs. 5,000. Honda Highness will be available for sale in all the premium ‘Big Wing Showrooms’ of India. Honda first inaugurated ‘Honda Big Wing Showrooms’ in Gurugram this year and by the end of 2020 there will be lot more such showrooms all over India to launch Honda Highness.

The launching program includes the disclose of all the great features of Honda Highness. The brand new engine rests at a split up of duplex framework that’s suspended by a ‘ chunky telescopic fork ‘ along with ‘ double shocks. ‘ Disc brakes are observed at both ends as standard and therefore are dual-channel ABS.

The design evokes the identical old-school Honda CB roadster vibes, enjoying the CB1100 EX which was used few decades back. In particular color variations, they secured a brownish leather seat. You can get LED light onto the CB350. It comes with the headlamp appearing quite like this one on the CB300R. The Honda Highness CB350 looks like an authentic blue retro and classic plus it gets a curved all-LED headlamp upfront in terms of the design and appearance.

Honda H'ness SpeedometerThe bike has a dimension of 2613 mm in length along with 800mm of width and 1107 mm of height. Ground clearance of the bike is about 166 mm. You will get a ‘ semi-digital info cluster ‘ that has a tiny digital display inside the odometer for displaying two trip meters, an odometer, a fuel indicator, a clock, and a gear position index. If you elect for the more advanced DLX Pro version, you also get Bluetooth connectivity that allows turn-by-turn navigation, call/music controllers, and more. Honda included features like Honda Smartphone Voice Control System (HSVCS),  Honda Selectable Torque Control (HSTC).

Honda H'ness EngineThe CB350 is actually a brand new 348.36C-C single-cylinder air-cooled long-stroke thumper that comes out with 21PS at 5500rpm and 30Nm at 3000rpm, making the motorcycle in its class. It may possess an older school configuration.  It has Honda Selectable Torque Control (Honda lingo for traction control). This is very unique in technolgoy, which makes it probably a very inexpensive bike while within the nation to receive it.

This brand new engine rests at a split up of duplex framework that’s suspended by a chunky telescopic fork along with double shocks. Disc brakes are observed at both ends as standard and also consists of dual-channel ABS. Honda Highness CB350 will be sold via the organization’s Big Wing retail channels and are the most affordable bike available throughout their dealership networks.

 

Brahmos Missile with Indigenous Booster Tested Successful on 30th September, 2020

Brahmos Supersonic Missile

Brahmos Supersonic MissileDRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization) unit has confirmed Significant Achievement on successful testing of BrahMos SupersonicMissile featured with ‘ Indigenous Booster ‘ and ‘ Airframe Section ‘ along with many other ‘Make in India’ sub-systems. It was tested successfully at 10:30 am on September 30, 2020, from ITR (Integrated Test Range), Balasore, Odisha. The missile was developed with the utmost use of indigenous components. DRDO has put all their efforts on missile development with primary concentration to reduce the export cost for research purposes.

On the launching program of BrahMos, DRDO congratulated all the scientific institutions and the scientific society of India for their constant support and belief in achieving the test-fired at approximately triple the speed of sound. The missile was able to fly over 400km at a top speed of Mach 2.8.

What is BrahMos?

BrahMos is a surface-to-surface supersonic cruise missile. The BrahMos Land-Attack Cruise Missile (LACM) is considered the world’s fastest supersonic cruise missile. It has already been implemented well in India’s specific departments, such as the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force, etc.

BrahMos missile is basically of two stages. At its first stage, a propellant booster engine is there to take up the supersonic speed. After attaining the speed, it gets separated. The second stage can also be termed as the ‘Liquid Ramjet.’ It transmits nearly at the rate of Mach 3 in its cruise phase.

Firstly, the BrahMos Missile Project was developed jointly by the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation)  along with the support of the leading Russian aerospace enterprise NPOM. For BrahMos, DRDO first requested for some components from Russian counterparts. But after that, they decided to encourage the indigenous power, and India’s HEMRL lab was then assigned to develop the booster.

# Congratulation Tweets

#Defence Minister of India,  Sri. Rajnath Singh, congratulated them for their most significant success to all the DRDO unit personnel for the BrahMos missile through twitter. Dr. G Satheesh Reddy, Secretary DD,  R&D, and Chairman DRDO also shared the warmest appreciation for the DRDO’s successful mission along with all the scientific community and industry for this feat.

#Press Information Bureau (PIB), Government of India, also published the remarkable story of the success of the indigenous Booster and Airframe section in their twitter handles, appreciating the ‘Made in India’ efforts of the DRDO team.