Nirbhay_MissileNirbhay Missile is developed and advanced by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), a sub-branch under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). DRDO is an agency whose principal task is to develop and evolve defence systems, weapons, machinery and to supply them to Indian Armed Forces. Nirbhay Missile is an all-weather, long-range and subsonic Cruise Missile. The launcher/carrier for Nirbhay Missile System is built and designed by Tata Motors Limited.


LENGTH                          : 6 mts/20 feet
WIDTH                            : 0.52 mts/1.7feet
ENGINE                           : Stage I: solid rocket booster
                                          Stage II: Turbofan Turbojet
MASS                               :1,500 kg/3,300lb
WINGSPAN                      :2.7 mts/8.9 feet
RANGE                             :up to 1,000 km/ 620 miles
CARRIER/ VEHICLE       :TATA LPTA 5252-12×12 Vehicle
PROPELLANT                 :STAGE I: Solid Fuel
                                          STAGE II: Liquid Fuel
WARHEAD                       : 200-300 KG (NUCLEAR Or CONVENTIONAL)


  1. The first trial of Nirbhay Missile was held at Chandipur Integrated Test Range in the state of Odisha on March 12, 2013, but after reaching the second stage of momentum the missile drifted out from the original path and its engine was disconnected in order to prevent any further risks.
  2. The second trial was held on October 17, 2014, again from Integrated Test Range located in the district of Balasore and the Nirbhay Missile was followed by Indian Fighter Jet Jaguar in order to capture the video. This second trial was successful and the Missile travelled for over 70 minutes.
  3. During its third trial, the Missile was crashed into the Bay of Bengal after travelling only 128 km on 16 October, 2015. The purpose of this trial was to examine the low flying potential of the Missile.
  4. The fourth trial took place on December 21, 2016, and there were no official records about the aftermath of the test but it was broadcasted by numerous sources that the examination was unsuccessful due to Missile’s Hardware problem.
  5. On November 7, 2017, the fifth trial took place from Chandipur and it was victorious as it fulfilled all the purposes and the Missile travelled around 647 km. In this trail, Turbojet engine is utilized in lieu of Turbofan engine.
  6. The sixth trial was successful and was carried on April 15, 2019, and DRDO itself demonstrated that the test was successful as it fulfilled each and every mission.
  7. The Seventh trail is planned to launch next month ( November 2020) and after the completion of the test, Nirbhay Missile will be officially installed into Indian Armed Forces.

Nirbhay Missile is a subsonic cruise Missile which operates from the surface to air. The Nirbhay is a broadly significant land-based missile in India. Nirbhay Missile possesses the sea-skimming skill and loitering capability, which implies that the weapon can move around the target and can conduct numerous operations or exercises and can reposition it. Nirvhay Missile sets off like a rocket but after the motor falls off it turns into an aircraft by stationing a wing set and a turbine engine. It becomes difficult for radar to detect this missile as it can fly tree-top layer and Nirbhay Missile can smash a target from any direction once it is near the target and it operates on the fire-and-forget system. The Nirbhay Missile can be launched from any source like land, submarines, warships, air-borne bombers.


SOP for Schoolos Reopening

SOP for Schoolos ReopeningThe education ministry on October 5, 2020, published guidelines which are to be fulfilled while reopening schools. The country is in lockdown since March 2020 and it is being revoked by launching unlock phases. Now, through unlock 5.0, the central government circulated protocols for reopening of schools, colleges and other educational institutions. Nonetheless, the final decision is bestowed to States and Union Territories whether they want to reopen the educational institutions or not.

Education Minister further tweeted that States and Union Territories should develop their own Standard Operating procedures(SOPs) viewing health and safety precautions for reopening of educational institutions. Central Education Minister Dr. Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank further affirmed that students will simply attend the school only with the approval of their parents or respective guardians. Those who don’t have access to physical schooling can resume taking online classes. Students are certified to go to school precisely on voluntary motive. Nevertheless, the lecturers and students who inhabit in containment or red zones, are not permitted to visit schools until the situation gets better.

The school management needs to supervise and execute sufficient cleaning and disinfecting methods around school premises. Each and everything and the entire place on school campus should be disinfected thoroughly using disinfectants and sanitizers. Thermal scanners for examining body temperatures are mandatory at the school entrance. The school Managements are highly recommended to establish committees for hygiene examination, emergency care and support. Educational societies should acquire all contact information and should communicate with closest hospitals, and emergency healthcare centres. Schools must ensure that there is adequate airflow in indoor spaces. Students, teachers, and other staffs at school inescapably have to wear face mask/ cover throughout the whole time and it is also better to wear gloves. Carrying a sanitizer always is an advantage.

Schools need to make sure that the timing of entry and exit of students should not overlap and everyone from pupils to non-teaching staff must obey social distancing rules. So the schools need to introduce a fresh seating structure that coordinates with social distancing regulations. Obtaining information about the student’s health is one of the prominent duty of their respective schools and during school hours if anyone shows the symptoms of COVID-19 the schools are instructed to interpret the procedures handed out by the central government. As per government suggestions, the schools with the midday meal program should serve the food which needs to be hot and well cooked.

The States has the responsibility to formulate a new academic calendar with planned classes, holidays and examinations. The government has announced that till next 2-3 weeks there will be neither teaching nor assessment and told teachers to enlighten students considering pandemic and to nurture their emotional strength. All schools in New Delhi will continue to be shut until the end of October. As for higher institutions, clearance is given to only PhD and PG students in science and technology with lab work or experiments.