WORKING WITH COVID-19 VACCINES GLOBALLY

Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines

Around the world scientists and researchers are analyzing 44 vaccines in clinical sessions on humans, and almost 92 preclinical vaccines are being tested in animals. Almost 150 vaccines for covid-19 are in progress across the world.

Generally, a vaccine takes up to 10 to 15 years to be available in market for public use. Vaccine for mumps is the fastest developed vaccine. This mumps vaccine took 4 years in 1960s era. Developing a vaccine is not an easy task. The vaccine has to go through clinical trials of three phases before they can be released for civil use. After the vaccine is fully developed and passed all the trials then the vaccine is sent to regulatory agency for approval. Well, this is not the end. after the vaccine is approved, there are many aspects to take care like scaling of production and distribution, and also which country should the vaccine be provided and lastly at what price should the vaccine be sold.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is similarly harmonizing international actions to formulate a vaccine, and is expecting to deliver around 2 billion doses of covid-19 vaccine by the end of 2021. Under Operation Warp Speed initiative, the U.S. government sponsored $10 billion and aims to deliver 300 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine by January 2021.

The Trump Government is pressuring the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to rapidly certify a vaccine. It is also propelling states to organize vaccine allotment sites from November 1, 2020. Some researches are saying that these quick decisions may cause a risk.

As of now, there are 29 vaccines in phase I human clinical trials, 14 in phase II trials and 11 vaccines in phase III trials. Below are some of the vaccines developed by important company’s or institutions.

Working with Vaccines

Vaccine Name:  NVX-CoV2373

This vaccine is being developed by Novavax, a biotechnology company in Gaithersburg, Maryland. On September 24, Novavax published that they are entering phase III trials in United Kingdom. The vaccine is given to around 10,000 people.

Vaccine Name: JNJ-78436735

This vaccine is developed by Johnson& Johnson Company. On September 23, Johnson & Johnson declared that they are going to conduct phase III trials for around 60,000 adults from various countries. The trial were paused on October 12 because on of the candidate is affected with unexplained illness.

 Vaccine Name: mRNA-1273

mRNA-1273 vaccine is created by Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health.

Vaccine Name: BNT162b2

This vaccine is also one of the potential vaccine. It is developed by both the Pfizer and BioNTech. There are hopes that the pfizer and biotech will supply around 1.3 billion doses by the ned of 2021. Presently, four US-based companies vaccine are in crucial phase III clinical trials. They are Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and Novavax.

Vaccine Name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222

This vaccine is developed by Oxford University in collaboration with the AstraZeneca, a biopharmaceutical Company. On September 8, AstraZeneca halted the trials because of an unfavorable reaction in one of the participants of U.K. Butler later on September 23 these trains are again resumed in U.K., South Africa, Brazil, and India but still paused in U.S. This vaccine is popularly known asCovishield in India. In India, the serum Institute of India (SII) is working with Oxford and Astrazeneca vaccine and the vaccine is in the final stage of human clinical trials. Phase III trials of this vaccine will be declared in November- December.

Vaccine Name: CoronaVac

This is developed by Sinkvac, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company, in collaboration with Brazilian research center Butantan. This vaccine is also undergoing phase III trails. Sinovac will also conduct phase three trials in Indonesia and Bangladesh. Other Chinese vaccine manufacturers are Cansino Biologics, Sinopharm. These are also under human clinical trials.

Vaccine Name: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

This is an old tuberculosis vaccine. This was developed by the largest child health research institute in Australia, in collaboration with the University of Melbourne. During this BRACE trial scientists are conducting test whether this vaccine will help in protecting people from coronavirus.

Vaccine Name: Sputnik V

Sputnik V Vaccine is developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Moscow. Spot on V was approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on 11 August for use. This vaccine created quite a lot of controversy.

Vaccine Name: Covaxin, Covishield

Coming to india, Covaxin is being developed by Bharat Biotech in association with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It is in Phase 2 clinical trial in the country. In the month of  July, the Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila started experimenting a DNA-based vaccine transmitted through a skin patch. Serum Institue is developing Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and it is called Covishield in India. From the past weeks, the coronavirus infection cases are steeply decreasing and the union Health  minister of India Harsha Vardhan stated that Covid-19 vaccine is expected in the early months of 2021 in India.

FROM A SINGLE COVID-19 CASE TO A MILLION CASES AND THE DOWNTREND

INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status

The first cases of coronavirus are reported around December 2019 in Wuhan city of Hubei province, China. Several researchers and health scientists expressed that the outbreak of virus may have arisen from pangolins or bats. While others implied that the virus is originated from the Wuhan animal wet market. Putting claims aside, there is no particular evidence or proof for the origin of coronavirus. World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.

Coronaviruses are a group of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) viruses that affect both humans and animals. The SARS Virus which rose hastily during the 2002-2003 period belongs to this family. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is quoted as SARS-CoV. Now, the present Novel coronavirus is named as SARS-CoV-2. The term Covid-19 is a disease that is caused by the coronavirus.

SARS-CoV-2 spreads from one individual to others by human touch or contact. For example, if a COVID-19 infected patient is near you with less than 6 feet distance, then there are high chances for you to get infected.

SYMPTOMS

There are some particularly reported cases where patients are identified to be infected with COVID-19 but the victims don’t possess any of the above-mentioned symptoms. About 80% of patients recovered without undergoing any special treatment.

NORMAL SYMPTOMS

  • Running Nose
  • Fever
  • Dry Cough
  • Tiredness

MODERATE SYMPTOMS

  • Severe headaches
  • Sore Throat
  • Body pains
  • Losing sense of smell or taste
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nasal congestion

SEVERE SYMPTOMS

  • Frequent pain in the chest
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Sometimes

Tracking Covid-19 in INDIA

 China cautioned the WHO about unspecified pneumonia circulating the virus in Wuhan on December 31, 2019. On 7th January 2020 WHO officials published a statement saying that the virus is labelled as 2019n-CoV. The first death from virus took place in China on January 11.

JANUARY, 2020

  • On the 30th of January, the first case reported in India from Kerala and it is a student from Wuhan University. The next 2 days India airlifts Indian citizens from Wuhan including 7 Maldives natives.

FEBRUARY

  • After 2 other cases were reported Kerala govt. declared virus as a state Calamity.
  • On February 4, India cancelled existing visas for foreigners and Chinese Nationals.
  • WHO notified that the infection by this virus is named as COVID-19.
  • On Feb, 19 the first case of the virus tested negative.

MARCH

  • As of 2nd March, two more were reported in Kerala
  • The number of coronavirus cases reached 50 on March 10.
  • March 11 is the day when WHO proclaimed Covid-19 as a pandemic.
  • India experienced first death from the virus on 12th March in Karnataka.
  • In just 4 days, the volume of cases reached 100.
  • On March, 22 ‘Janata Curfew’ came into existence for 14 hours.
  • The lockdown is inflicted on March 25 till April 14.

APRIL

  • The casualties volume crossed 100.
  • The Indian government extended the lockdown till 3rd of May.
  • On April, 29 the death toll surpassed 1000.

MAY

  • The lockdown in India is extended for another 2 weeks on May 1st and based on the proportion of cases the places were divided into red, orange and green zones.
  • 50,000 confirmed coronavirus cases and Phase I of Vande Bharat Mission took place to evacuated citizens from foreign countries.
  • The lockdown is again extended to May 31st by government.
  • On May 19, the COVID-19 cases crossed 1 lakh.

JUNE

  • WHO instructed to wear face masks while going out or in crowded places.
  • On June, 8, the number of cases reached 2,50,00 with 7,200 casualties. Unlock 1.0 appeared into force.
  • India get ahead of UK and became the 4th horribly affected country with cases crossing over 3 lakhs.
  • A total of 5 lakh COVID-19 confirmed cases were reported in India.

JULY

  • On July 1st, Unlock 2.0 came into existence.
  • As of 6th July, USA reported more than 28 lakh cases and Brazil reported around 16 lakh cases. India pushed down Russia and became the Third worst affected country by coronavirus with 6.97 lakh cases.
  • Bharat Biotech Pharmaceutical Company started the first clinical trials of India’s first native vaccine, Covaxin.

AUGUST

  • Unlock 3.0 guidelines came into force on August 1st.
  • Even before the completion of phase III trials of the vaccine, Russia released Sputnik V vaccine for civilian/public use.
  • India reported with more than 3 million COVID-19 cases.
  • On August, 26, clinical trails of covishield were started by Serum Institute.
  • Phase 4.0 unlock protocols are released on August 29.
  • Worldwide COVID-19 cases crossed the mark of 25 million. India reported 78,761 new cases in a single day on August, 30.

SEPTEMBER

  • The first case of reinfection was discovered in the city of Bengaluru.
  • India with a total of 4.1 Million/41.13 lakh cases became 2nd disastrous hit country by coronavirus pushing down Brazil.
  • Clinical trials of ‘Covi-Shield’ by Serum Institute were abruptly stopped due to some unexplained illness.
  • September, 11, alone recorded a total of 97,570 new cases.
  • A total of more than 5 million cases are reported in India and last 1 Million cases are registered in just 11 days and the USA with 6.8 Million cases.
  • Reasonably, more than 1 lakh patients recovered from Covid-19 on September, 22.
  • As of 27, September India reported more than 50 lakh recoveries from COVID-18 COVID-19 and just in 11 days around 10 lakh people were recovered.

Current Status

As of today, 8 October 2020 the horribly affected nations by SARS-CoV-2 are the United States of America with 7.58 Million cases and 212K fatalities, followed by India with 6.76 Million cases and 105K deaths, then Brazil with 5 Million cases and 148K victims. Considering the deaths, Brazil pushes down India and occupies the second place. India is the one and only country which is awfully affected in the whole Asian sub-continent by 2019-nCoV.

Coming to India, the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for more than 60% of total COVID-19 cases. Lakshadweep Islands of India is free from Coronavirus. In the recent days there is a significant fall in the number of cases reported across India.

Covid-19 Downtrend
Covid-19 Downtrend

As we can see in the graph, the number of COVID-19 cases is hastily shrinking since the last 2-3 weeks. The twitter is trending with #IndiaFightsCorona hashtag because of its significant 85% recovery rate. The Indian government and also the citizens of India become aware of the pandemic and are following social distancing rules thoroughly and the result can be seen above with the significant decrease of covid-19 infections and increased recovery rates.

National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 & Mobile Stroke Care Unit (Launched On 28th September, 2020)

National Clinical Registry for COVID-19

National Clinical Registry for COVID-19The Union Health Ministry of India, Dr. Harsh Vardhan authenticated a web portal on 28th of September, 2020 in New Delhi, India. This portal will Offer all significant information and advice about COVID-19, vaccine development, continuing clinical trials and advancement made in this area locally and internationally to generate consciousness among the people. The “vaccine web portal site” and also the “National Clinical Registry for COVID-19” have been formulated with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) . The National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 will gather systematic information on clinical signs and symptoms, lab investigations, management protocols, the clinical course of COVID-19, disorder spectrum and results of hospitalized COVID sufferers in India.

In the event the Minister said, men and women, today are very excited and curious to learn more about the Covid-19 vaccine advancement. He stated all of the info about the recovery growth from COVID-19 has to be given in a very straightforward and comprehensible method. He requested all the curious people to visit the site on vaccine.icmr.org.in to find the latest information on vaccine development.  He highlighted the role of proper nutrition and physical activity in day to day life while adding that faulty nutrition habits have been damaging the health of people, especially the younger people.

He appreciated the role played with several campaigns such as Eat Right Movement, Fit India Movement and also Poshan Abhiyan to help make people conscious of the nutritious lifestyle. Dr. Vardhan also unmasked a timeline depicting the ICMR”s historical accomplishments and inaugurated the ‘Mobile Stroke Unit’ useful for the central health research institutes.

Dr. Vardhan glorified the clinical journey throughout the COVID-19 war period and stated that they increased with more than 1800 laboratories from a scrap of only one specifically designed for COVID-19 testing. Now in India, daily Covid-19 tests have crossed a margin of 15lakh samples per day.

Vaccine PortalICMR appreciated the launching program for the betterment of clinical advancement in India. They stated this launch as a great tool to formulate appropriate patient recovery management techniques. It will also help to analyze and predict seriousness of disease and also the results showing in patients for these managements and many more useful relevant topics. People residing anywhere around the globe can avail this facility and grab their required information about the COVID-19 relevant information of India from the website, vaccine.icmr.org.in

Mobile Stroke Care Unit

The ICMR has also pioneered to Give Stroke therapy through the High Tech Mobile Stroke Unit at Tezpur and Dibrugarh regions of Assam. The healthcare unit has been supplied by Union Health and household welfare Minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan via videoconferencing. “Considering the massive burden of stroke and also lack of stroke maintenance centers in Assam, this initiative can go a long way in treating the desires of their people within this field. The cellular unit, during tele-consultation, ensures timely and proper treatment to the folks” he explained.

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Covid Recovery Rate in India-Story of Hope

India Optimistic

India OptimisticDue to the ongoing Coronavirus (COVID-19) like other countries India is witnessing lots of unimaginable problems. In every state people of different ages started to suffer from coronavirus, many people died because of this, people were too frightened. Our government immediately took many effective steps to increase the recovery rate as well as balance the situation.

A nation-wide lockdown from the midnight of 24th March 2020 was announced by The Indian Prime Minister for lessening the coronavirus impact. For this, citizens controlled their unnecessary movements and only essential services of government and non-government were active. Though unlock 4.0 guidelines had been issued, India is still under lockdown. Nevertheless, India has one of the most coronavirus cases in the world. Fortunately, the best part is that the recovery rate is increasing regularly.

On 3rd September 2020, the number of new cases is 83,833 and the recovery rate is also impressive. Till now total coronavirus cases of India are 3,933,124 whereas, the total recovery number is 3,034,887 and the total death number is 68,659. The recovery rate is 77.16 %. The death rate is also surprisingly on a steady downward process. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) said in a statement that implementation of all the necessary steps, treating immediately and appropriately through a widening medical care infrastructure with the help of the states across the country, etc are the root causes for excellent improvement of the number of recoveries in India.

India OptimisticAccording to his statement, focusing on the proper use of non-invasive oxygen, improved ambulance services, and better-skilled doctors both in the hospitals as well as in ICUs have been confirming the desired results. Besides these steps, some biological and environmental factors are helping to stem the incidence and severity and increase the recovery rate.

Most of India has either tropical (type A) or dry climate (type B). As per reports, high relative humidity and temperature surprisingly reduce COVID-19 transmission and India becomes fortuitous! The protective cross-immunity development in our population against the coronavirus can play a vital role in increasing the recovery rate.

Whatever the reason lies behind the improvement of corona recovery cases, the fact is people of India are overcoming this coronavirus bit by bit. Now people are more careful about the transmission and they are trying to maintain personal hygiene and social distancing norms provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as the Indian Government and trying to adjust the new normal life. In India, even though Covid cases are rising in most of the states, Indians are optimistic about the recovery rate.

Air Bubble Travel : Become Global Again

Air Bubble

Due to the coronavirus outbreak, almost everything around us has been changed. International flights have been banned. Like many other countries the Indian government has declared that the ban on international flights is going to be continued until September 30, 2020. Based on the coronavirus behavior further decisions about international flights would be taken by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA).

The worst part is our citizens who are stuck in foreign countries and the foreigners who are stuck in India are suffering a lot. That’s why the Indian government started the Vande Bharat Mission. According to this, our people who are stuck in other countries and foreigners who are stuck in our country can travel with a legal agenda. But this process has some major issues like flights are pretty limited; passengers are being prioritized as in for whom travel is really necessary and many more.

To reduce all these obstacles, the Government of India has recently introduced the Air Bubble Transport Arrangement. This is a bi-lateral bubble travel agreement in which citizens of selected countries are allowed to travel to other selected countries. This is also called corona corridors. Australia and New Zealand set the example of world-first air bubble travel. Air bubble travel is going to allow us to be global citizens again. For this, people from all over the world are going to be thankful. Through this process, international borders will remain open. According to the latest unlock guidelines, air bubble travels are allowed in India with standard operating procedures.

Air BubbleTo control the crowd and minimize the flight passengers have to maintain some rules and regulations. The countries with whom India has created the air bubble travel agreement are the USA, France, Germany, UK, Canada, UAE, Qatar, and the Maldives. Indian Government is now negotiating with Australia, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, Kenya, and the Philippines to start air bubble travel.

The important thing is that people who want to travel through air bubbles do not need to register on the Civil Aviation Website. Passengers do not need to do any formalities with the government for this particular travel. The airline will take all the formalities. In the case of both inbound and outbound flights, passengers must have to follow all the standard operating procedures provided by the airline. The Civil Aviation Minister has informed that efforts will be continued to establish such temporary bi-lateral agreements with other countries in the coming days.

OXFORD VACCINE TRIALS: A RACE AGAINST TIME

Working with Vaccines

KhIcHiDi-Oxford Vaccination TrailsResearchers of the University of Oxford have been working on a vaccine against coronavirus since January 2020. The first and second trials took place in April in southern England. The findings are highly promising.  This vaccine appears safe and also triggers strong immune responses in humans.  The study from the first clinical trials of Oxford Vaccine shows that after one dose ninety percent of people produced neutralizing antibodies. All of them who took the second dose developed neutralizing antibodies. However,  17% had a fever and around 6 to 10 % had a headache which shows that this vaccine has no dangerous side-effects. The best part is that this Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine which is also known as ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 will start its final trials in India in partnership with the Serum Institute of India (SII).

A final trial of the Oxford COVID-19 vaccine is going to be held in 17 hospitals in India. King Edward Memorial Hospital Parel, and BYL Nair Hospitals, Mumbai Central are two civic-run hospitals in Mumbai. Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) has approved these two hospitals to start phase II and phase III clinical trials of the Oxford vaccine. 17 sites including Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RMRIMS) in Patna, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, (AIIMS) Delhi, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research in Mysore, etc have been selected by the Pune based drug-maker to conduct the trial. The number of candidates who will take part in the study is 1,600 in total. Above 18 years of age, people will participate in this trial. Among them, 400 participants are going to be part of the immunogenicity cohort. Every participant is going to administer two doses.

KhIcHiDi-Oxford Vaccination TrailsAccording to study design, the first dose will be scheduled on day one and the second dose will be given on the 29th day. Hemant Deshmukh who is a doctor from King Edward Memorial Hospital said that the Data Safety Monitoring Board and Central Drugs Standard Control Organization will evaluate the phase II trials report and give permission for phase III and final trial. Healthy and young Indians will participate in these trials.  In India, this vaccine can be priced for Rs.1000/- and can be marketed as ‘Covishield’. It is believed that this ‘Covishield’ vaccine is going to be the life savior of Indian people. This Oxford vaccine trial will help us to fight against the Coronavirus and make us to overcome this pandemic.

UNLOCK 4.0: A New Normal Situation

Unlock 4.0

Amidst lockdown people of India tried many things to be healthy and productive. They have rearranged their mind to cope with the pandemic situation. Nevertheless, the cases are increasing rapidly. So, people were frightened to face long term lockdown all over the country. But on 29th August, a new set of fresh guidelines issued as “Unlock 4.0” from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)  which is going to bring us a pretty normal situation. Many more activities are going to be reopened outside the containment zones. Let’s see according to Unlock 4.0 Guidelines what is allowed for us and what is not.

Khichidi

 

Metro services will operate in a phased manner from September 7, 2020. No token will be provided. People must have metro cards to travel. Metro cars will stop only in allowed stations, not in every station like before.

 

KhichidiEducational institutions will continue to remain shut for students till September 30. But students from classes 9 to 12 can visit their schools for guidance with their parents or guardians written consent copy from 21st September. This will be subject to the schools outside of the containment zones. Whereas research scholars (Ph.D.) and post-graduate students can does their lab work with the permission of the Department of Higher Education (DHE).

Cinema halls, entertainment parks, theatres, swimming pools, and other such places will continue to remain shut. Only open-air theatres are permitted to open from September 21. With adequate standard operating procedures resorts, clubs and hotels, etc can function. Inter-state and intra-state movement of persons and goods will not face any restriction.

Moreover,  international air travel will be restricted like before. In all types of congregations, 100 persons will be permitted from September 21 with strict measures. Senior citizens of the country who are over  65 years of age, pregnant women, and young children below the age of 10 have been advised to stay at home. Until September 30 lockdown will be strictly implemented in containment zones. And without the center’s nod, the state govt can not impose any local lockdown. According to this phase of unlocking, people have to maintain social distancing and face-covering in public places. If people do spitting in public places they will be punished with a fine.

If all of us follow all the steps of the latest unlock guidelines, we will easily adapt to our new normal life. This is going to reduce the cases as well as the mortality rate of COVID 19.

Plasma The Golden Lifeline

Plasma The Golden Lifeline

   

      According to the ‘Wordweb Dictionary’, Plasma or Blood Plasma can be defined as The color-less watery fluid of the blood and lymph that contains no cells, but in which the blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes) are suspended.

     Plasma Therapy is an age-old process to cure critical diseases like the Spanish Flu in 1918. The therapy was widely used at that time during the pandemic and it has saved many lives. It was tested very often now and then to check the reliability of this treatment. For the treatment of COVID-19 infected patients, the doctors in India have insisted to test this therapy and they found the results were encouraging, where, antibodies from the cured person are winning against their enemy.

     The general phenomenon of this therapy is that the plasma the golden lifeline will be collected from the COVID warriors and loaded into the body of COVID ill patient. The plasma cells can release the powerful army of antibodies to fight against the COVID-19 virus and doctors are sure that antibodies can win the battle against the COVID-19 virus.

     The Indian doctors raised the necessity of Plasma Therapy and appealed to the government for testing this treatment in patients who have moderate to severe symptoms of COVID-19. Some hospitals have been volunteered for testing Plasma Therapy after getting permission from the Drug General Controller General of India and the results were encouraging. Since then, most of the state governments are now encouraging the COVID-19 warriors to donate Plasma the golden lifeline and asked them to help to cure the patients who have moderate to severe symptoms of COVID-19.

     Most of the private hospitals are also using Plasma Therapy for critically ill patients due to COVID-19. According to the sources, it has been observed that the recovery rate by using this therapy can be high and the doctors might be getting satisfactory results.


Hence it is requested to all the COVID-19 warriors who have defeated the virus to donate their plasma the golden lifeline and let the powerful army of antibodies win the war against the global pandemic COVID-19.

SOS Messages Online

Ministers visiting COVID Hospital in Warangal

Twitter which is very popular for microblogging, has become much more popular in recent days for COVID-19 emergency messages which can also be known as SOS Messages Online. Normally SOS which is meant for Save Our Soul or Save Our Ship is a call of distress in Morse code from the mariners when their life or the vessel was in danger. However, due to its importance, the SOS messages are being used in emergencies very often.

During the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, before lockdown, it was very difficult to get access to government health and emergency services, as most of the people who are in needy, were not aware of the government norms or the procedures. Since that period, some of them have reached out to Twitter to message directly to their concerned, right from ministers to health, police, and administrative officials and send messages to them and the response from the ministers, health, police, and administrative was spontaneous.

The Telangana state ministers, health and police officials in particular, have responded to the SOS Messages Online, instantly and guided the respective officials to take the necessary action. The messages were not limited to health but were also requested for the interstate people movement due to emergencies, helping the stranded labor, getting the cab services for the needy people as well.

Twitter has helped in this pandemic situation, as most of the needy people have reached out to their respective officials for help through SOS Messages Online. In Twitter, usually, some of the politicians and officials might be having huge fan following and in general, the number of tweets for them will be more. Since there is no separate classification for emergency messages, there is a probability that some of these messages may miss out as well.

Hence it is requested to the Twitter that such kind of messages can be categorized under ‘ SOS Messages’ so that, the needy can be benefitted!