Potential Resource Of The Earth On The Surface Of The Moon

Probable Water bodies on moon
Probable Water bodies on moon
Probable Water bodies on moon

Water on the moon is generally called “lunar water”.  Even though water is tasteless, colorless and odorless, it is one valuable resource. Water is essential for daily use. For example, water is necessary for astronauts living on the moon. They need water to live and also for other purposes like generating rocket fuel and many more.

The discovery of the water

For the first time in 2009, the lunar water is found by the M3 instrument that is installed in chadrayaan-1. The location where the water was found is named as Jawahar point, it is near

Shackleton Crater. According to the reports by Nature Geoscience, in 2013, it is revealed that the lunar water found by chandrayyan-1 is water emerging from deep surfaces or is simply called magmatic water. Chandrayaan-1 was launched by ISRO on October 22, 2008, and it operated till August 28, 2009.

Now, in 2020, the lunar water is discovered on the sunlit surface of the moon in the southern hemispheres in the Clavius Crater. It is recognized by the SOFIA Telescope. SOFIA Telescope is a Boeing 747SP jetliner, it travels up to 45,000 feet and it is embedded with an infrared camera. The purpose of SOFIA is to observe distant and dark items. In 2018, researchers experimented with a test by SOFIA for tracking the moon. This experiment resulted in the finding of lunar water. The reports show that water is trapped in one cubic meter of soil with 100-412 ppm concentrations.

Hydrogen and Hydroxyl

There was some discussion on the lunar water found by chandrayaan-1 by NASA’s ground-based Infrared Telescope Facility and NASA’s Cassini and Deep Impact comet mission.  The discussion is about whether the detected lunar water is water-like H20 or hydroxyl (OH). But the lunar water found by SOFIA is confirmed that it is real water and not hydroxyl.

The chemical formula of water is H2O and each molecule contains 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms and is connected by covalent bonds. Whereas hydroxyl with the chemical formula OH has oxygen bonded to hydrogen. Generally, alcohol, organic chemistry, and carboxylic acids have a hydroxy group.

Moon missions

The first moon mission is Luna 2 by the soviet union on 13 September 1959. Luna 9 is the first spacecraft to have a soft landing on the moon in 1966. The first spacecraft to enter orbit is Luna 10.

NASA conducted Apollo missions on the moon. These Apollo missions are manned missions and are performed between 1968 to 1972.

The first manned mission to the moon orbit is Apollo 8 in December 1968. In May 1969 Apollo 10 was launched followed by Apollo 11 in July 1969. With this, the first man to walk on the moon became Neil Armstrong. Chang’e 4 became the first lunar exploration mission to have a soft landing on the far side of the moon in 2019.

Chandrayaan-2 was foreseen to have a soft landing on the dark side of the south pole of the moon. But at the last moment, due to technical errors, the mission didn’t achieve a soft landing.

The water findings will be a huge help to the Artemis mission of NASA. NASA is planning to send the first women and the next men to the moon by 2024 through the Artemis mission. NASA is hoping to stabilize sustainable human presence before the decade ends. They are planning to use the resources on the moon’s surface so that the resource load carried from the earth for the astronauts will be reduced.

Speculations about the presence of water

Moon doesn’t possess a thick atmosphere. It is speculated by the researchers that the tiny amounts of water that is carried by the space rocks have collided with the moon and the hydrogen may have carried by the solar wind of the sun to the moon. After these minerals are reacted with each other hydroxyl may have formed that is later turned into water. NASA explained that the water may have been trapped in the rocky soil as the lunar soil is created by the collision of space rocks.

It is not yet known whether the lunar water found in the sunlit surface can be accessed easily or not. But according to the recalled reports by the study, lunar water on the shadowy regions or far side areas or simply called cold traps have water spread around 40,000 sq km.


SOFIA Telescope will continue to search for lunar water in the sunlit areas and will also study the formation, production, and storage of the water on the moon. Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) of NASA is planning to develop water resource maps on the moon for the first time.


Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that gives importance to the advancement of machines based on intelligence. To solve issues or tasks that need human thinking or man’s intelligence AI is being used. Like other subjects, Artificial Intelligence also possesses a father. The father of Artificial intelligence (AI) is John McCarthy.

The world is observing speedy developments in AI, and Machine Learning. Some daily devices we use like Google Assistant, Amazon’s Alexa, Microsoft’s Cortana, Apple’s Siri are some of the known AI assistants. AI has many features like problem-solving, machine learning, planning, and language recognition.


  • AI expands intelligence to existing outputs and makes them productive
  • AI has the potential to interpret large loads of data quickly
  • Reduces the number of human errors.
  • AI performs well using expert networks and deep learning applications
  • AI has various automate systems
  • Faster and more accurate decisions when compared to manpower
  • AI has a Voice and image recognition system
  • Helps in reducing repetitive work and avoids overlapping
  • AI delivers digital service
  • Collects, stores, and processes various information
  • Catches, processes, and reacts to languages i.e., speech to text, text to speech
  • Doesn’t need breaks unlike humans and can work 24/7


Artificial Intelligence is broadly divided into 3 types. They are narrow or weak AI, strong or general AI, and conscious or artificial superintelligence. The third type of AI, which is conscious AI is recently introduced. Analytic, text, functional, interactive, and visual are 5 types of AI systems. They can be used solely or can be used by combining a few systems.


By using Artificial Intelligence one of the main disadvantages is unemployment. The jobs of many employees will be at stake for the next couple of decades. Improving AI will be a tremendous benefit to the healthcare industry. AI can assist to point out tumours in X-rays, help researchers and scientists to detect genetic series. AI helps to formulate further productive drugs or medication for treatments. By using AI, the surveillance system will be great. AI has a feature called facial recognition, since the past few years, this feature is widely being used even in mobile phones too. There are neural networks which are used to create duplicate images, these are impossible to differentiate whether they are real or not. The neural networks can even manipulate a person’s voice too. These tools became major factors for circulating fake news. Since the past few years, there is a desire to create driverless cars. Through AI it is possible and also robots can be created for delivery services or home use.


On October 5, 2020, India started a summit named Responsible AI for Social Empowerment (RAISE) 2020.  The summit motive is how AI can be used for transforming healthcare, Education, Agriculture, and other categories. Tamil Nadu became the first state in India to create policies related to blockchain, ethical AI, and cybersecurity. Apart from Tamil-nadu, other states like Telangana, Karnataka, West Bengal, and Maharashtra took initiatives towards Artificial Intelligence.

In this fast progressing world AI is required. There are many pros of AI and also cons. AI poses a threat if it is used negatively. So, it is the responsibility of government to take precautionary measures to prevent malicious events.




Nirbhay_MissileNirbhay Missile is developed and advanced by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), a sub-branch under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). DRDO is an agency whose principal task is to develop and evolve defence systems, weapons, machinery and to supply them to Indian Armed Forces. Nirbhay Missile is an all-weather, long-range and subsonic Cruise Missile. The launcher/carrier for Nirbhay Missile System is built and designed by Tata Motors Limited.


LENGTH                          : 6 mts/20 feet
WIDTH                            : 0.52 mts/1.7feet
ENGINE                           : Stage I: solid rocket booster
                                          Stage II: Turbofan Turbojet
MASS                               :1,500 kg/3,300lb
WINGSPAN                      :2.7 mts/8.9 feet
RANGE                             :up to 1,000 km/ 620 miles
CARRIER/ VEHICLE       :TATA LPTA 5252-12×12 Vehicle
PROPELLANT                 :STAGE I: Solid Fuel
                                          STAGE II: Liquid Fuel
WARHEAD                       : 200-300 KG (NUCLEAR Or CONVENTIONAL)


  1. The first trial of Nirbhay Missile was held at Chandipur Integrated Test Range in the state of Odisha on March 12, 2013, but after reaching the second stage of momentum the missile drifted out from the original path and its engine was disconnected in order to prevent any further risks.
  2. The second trial was held on October 17, 2014, again from Integrated Test Range located in the district of Balasore and the Nirbhay Missile was followed by Indian Fighter Jet Jaguar in order to capture the video. This second trial was successful and the Missile travelled for over 70 minutes.
  3. During its third trial, the Missile was crashed into the Bay of Bengal after travelling only 128 km on 16 October, 2015. The purpose of this trial was to examine the low flying potential of the Missile.
  4. The fourth trial took place on December 21, 2016, and there were no official records about the aftermath of the test but it was broadcasted by numerous sources that the examination was unsuccessful due to Missile’s Hardware problem.
  5. On November 7, 2017, the fifth trial took place from Chandipur and it was victorious as it fulfilled all the purposes and the Missile travelled around 647 km. In this trail, Turbojet engine is utilized in lieu of Turbofan engine.
  6. The sixth trial was successful and was carried on April 15, 2019, and DRDO itself demonstrated that the test was successful as it fulfilled each and every mission.
  7. The Seventh trail is planned to launch next month ( November 2020) and after the completion of the test, Nirbhay Missile will be officially installed into Indian Armed Forces.

Nirbhay Missile is a subsonic cruise Missile which operates from the surface to air. The Nirbhay is a broadly significant land-based missile in India. Nirbhay Missile possesses the sea-skimming skill and loitering capability, which implies that the weapon can move around the target and can conduct numerous operations or exercises and can reposition it. Nirvhay Missile sets off like a rocket but after the motor falls off it turns into an aircraft by stationing a wing set and a turbine engine. It becomes difficult for radar to detect this missile as it can fly tree-top layer and Nirbhay Missile can smash a target from any direction once it is near the target and it operates on the fire-and-forget system. The Nirbhay Missile can be launched from any source like land, submarines, warships, air-borne bombers.

Brahmos Missile with Indigenous Booster Tested Successful on 30th September, 2020

Brahmos Supersonic Missile

Brahmos Supersonic MissileDRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization) unit has confirmed Significant Achievement on successful testing of BrahMos SupersonicMissile featured with ‘ Indigenous Booster ‘ and ‘ Airframe Section ‘ along with many other ‘Make in India’ sub-systems. It was tested successfully at 10:30 am on September 30, 2020, from ITR (Integrated Test Range), Balasore, Odisha. The missile was developed with the utmost use of indigenous components. DRDO has put all their efforts on missile development with primary concentration to reduce the export cost for research purposes.

On the launching program of BrahMos, DRDO congratulated all the scientific institutions and the scientific society of India for their constant support and belief in achieving the test-fired at approximately triple the speed of sound. The missile was able to fly over 400km at a top speed of Mach 2.8.

What is BrahMos?

BrahMos is a surface-to-surface supersonic cruise missile. The BrahMos Land-Attack Cruise Missile (LACM) is considered the world’s fastest supersonic cruise missile. It has already been implemented well in India’s specific departments, such as the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force, etc.

BrahMos missile is basically of two stages. At its first stage, a propellant booster engine is there to take up the supersonic speed. After attaining the speed, it gets separated. The second stage can also be termed as the ‘Liquid Ramjet.’ It transmits nearly at the rate of Mach 3 in its cruise phase.

Firstly, the BrahMos Missile Project was developed jointly by the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation)  along with the support of the leading Russian aerospace enterprise NPOM. For BrahMos, DRDO first requested for some components from Russian counterparts. But after that, they decided to encourage the indigenous power, and India’s HEMRL lab was then assigned to develop the booster.

# Congratulation Tweets

#Defence Minister of India,  Sri. Rajnath Singh, congratulated them for their most significant success to all the DRDO unit personnel for the BrahMos missile through twitter. Dr. G Satheesh Reddy, Secretary DD,  R&D, and Chairman DRDO also shared the warmest appreciation for the DRDO’s successful mission along with all the scientific community and industry for this feat.

#Press Information Bureau (PIB), Government of India, also published the remarkable story of the success of the indigenous Booster and Airframe section in their twitter handles, appreciating the ‘Made in India’ efforts of the DRDO team.

Hypersonic: Happening Technology in the Indian Weapon Club

DRDO - Hypersonic Missile

DRDOThe Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) of India have successfully tested a hypersonic technology demons-trator vehicle (HSTDV) on Monday. This great achievement gives the entry card to our India of the hypersonic missile club. India joins this club as a fourth member after USA, Russia and China.

Hypersonic missiles are one of the most advanced war technologies. Basically, hypersonic weapons combine the maneuvering capabilities of cruise missiles with the speed of ballistic missiles. Compared to traditional missiles, hypersonic missiles are hard to track. Hypersonic missiles can even move at around 5 times the speed of sound. Both the speed as well as the maneuverability of modern hypersonic missiles has made them this practical as both defensive and offensive weapons. In case of any weapon the most important fact is the payload. Here comes hypersonic weapons which can deliver nuclear or conventional payloads anywhere across the world within minutes.

At Abdul Kalam Island off the coast of Odisha DRDO successfully tested HSTDV. In this test DRDO used a scramjet propulsion system which is indigenously developed. This HSTDV succeeded to meet all the technical parameters. This hypersonic missile capable vehicle can travel at 6 times the speed of sound (Mach 6).

DRDO - Hypersonic MissileAccording to The Defense Research and Development Organization’s planning, India will be able to develop such missiles in 5 years. HSTDV will be used as a vehicle for long-range and hypersonic cruise missiles. Moreover, HSTDV will also have several civilian applications. This can be used to launch small satellites in an economical way. According to the Defense Minister Sri. Rajnath Singh, this success is going to pave the way for a self-dependent India. The United States had successfully tested an unarmed prototype of a hypersonic missile in March, 2020. As per reports, Russia and China are also pursuing hypersonic weapons vigorously.

According to Russian President Vladimir Putin, Russian Navy vessels are going to be armed with underwater nuclear drones and hypersonic nuclear strike weapons which are in the final stage of testing. Like these three countries India is going to develop many more hypersonic vehicles, technology and materials with this great technological breakthrough.

The Indian armed forces have the supersonic cruise missiles which were developed jointly with Russia. These missiles were powered by ramjets which can travel at Mach 2.8 speed (Mach is the ratio of speed of a body to speed of sound). The HSTDV test was powered by scramjet which is the improved version over the ramjet engine. This says our Indian defense is becoming strong gradually. Good luck mother India.

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 2 – Be Bold Get the Fold

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 2

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 2 Galaxy Z Fold 2 5G is a premium device with larger screens and better software. In Galaxy Z Fold 2, Samsung has addressed all user complaints which came with the first generation of foldable phones. The new one is more refined, more mature, and polished than the previous one.

With a cool metal frame and thin bezels, this phone is for regular people. When the users will open the hinge, they will feel that they are opening a laptop. In India, the price of Z Fold 2 is Rs 177,990. With a vertical screen crease, this phone has a side-mounted fingerprint sensor.

This phone provides fast charging 25W, fast wireless charging 11W, and reverse wireless charging 4.5W. With 282 gm weight, Fold 2 has Samsung’s own and SwiftKey keyboards which provide easier thumb-typing for having split facilities. Moreover, most apps have worked well both on the large and small screen. The external screen has a 6.2-inch display for which in a closed position the outer screen looks great. Without any notch, the 7.6 inches internal glass screen feels fragile.

For the Qualcomm Snapdragon 865 Plus chipset, switching screens is quite seamless and fast. In case of a video call or shooting photos, this phone can prop itself for its flex mode. In the case of multitasking, the Z Fold 2 is incredible with total flexibility. This version provides a multi-active window facility and users can easily set up a pair of apps in order to open side by side. The infinity-O layout gives the Z fold 2 single 10-megapixel camera as the user unfolds the phone. When the device is closed, the user is going to get the same camera on the cover display with a three-camera system on the back. This three-camera system has 12-megapixel wide-angle, ultra-wide-angle as well as telephoto sensors. Users will get a foldable dynamic AMOLED 2X capacitive touchscreen with 16M colors and 2x optical zoom with no 8K video.

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 2Galaxy Z Fold 2However, users are going to get two camera features. One is a dual preview and the other one is auto-framing. This Z Fold 2 has a dual-battery system with a combined capacity of 4,500 mAh. People can buy the Z Fold 2 in mystic black and mystic bronze and then customize the hinge in metallic red, silver, gold, silver, or blue.

This phone approves drag and drop between certain apps including Gmail, Microsoft Outlook, Chrome, and Samsung native apps. With Gorilla Glass Vectus outer screen, sturdy hinge, and burnished metal frame the Z Fold 2 feels pretty sleek.

Neuralink : The new control command for human brain


Billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk’s startup Neuralink has been working on creating a brain-computer interface (BCI) for four years. Their goal is to solve important brain and spine problems by implanting a device. Elon Musk suggested that installing this device would be affordable and it would make people flawless human robots who can control their brain.

Over time almost everyone has to face neurological disorders like memory loss, hearing loss, blindness, paralysis, depression, insomnia, extreme pain, seizures, anxiety, addiction, stroke, brain damage etc.

According to Neuralink, an implantable device can solve all of the neurological problems by working on brain signals without doing any harm to the brain. All of our senses like pain, hearing, feeling, sight etc are electrical signals sent by neurons to our brain. When the signals don’t work properly people suffer from different neurological disorders. Neuralink says that their device would correct the signals and bring back the normality of that person. Neuralink‘s actual device is on the verge of a milestone in medical technology. Currently, available tech which is already in the market does not always work, cannot read, or write high bandwidth information.

Neuralink-2Sometimes destroys about a sugar-cube of brain matter. But Elon Musk claims that his neuroscience theater, Neuralink’s silver-dollar-sized device is going to change the world. Besides curing neurological disorders, Neuralink would let people control any gadgets with their minds.

People can do rock-climbs without fear, see radar with an extra-ordinary vision; change their mood with the help of that device. The testing pig with the brain implant has 1,000 channels and every time it snuffles the device triggers a beeping noise. Musk’s goal is to increase this result by a factor of “100, then 1,000, then, 10,000” in order to read more specifically from the brain. Through an induction coil, this device can be charged wirelessly. Elon Musk believes that in the future people can remove the previous version of this device and install the latest version.

Neurosurgeon Matthew MacDougall who works with Neuralink thinks that in the long run someone’s full-body motion can be restored with that chip. People can live with their happy memories.   Musk says if we want to achieve some artificial intelligence symbiosis, we have to figure out the way so that we can coexist with advanced artificial intelligence. Neuralink is going to create a disease-free happy world where people can live their life in the desired way.

Jio-Fiber: Reliance Revolutionizing India’s Broadband

Reliance Jio Fiber

Reliance Jio Fibre During this pandemic situation, the internet is helping people to survive! Through the internet, people can do everything from enrolling in different courses to order food and everything in between. Recently, we Indians are using the internet a lot. Infect, it has become our primary source of entertainment. To avoid poor connection as well as the low speed we go for internet broadband services. But the confusing part is that before using we cannot fix which broadband service we should use. Every telecom operator says that they are good at providing their service. But in most cases, we cannot match their words with their services.

Here comes Jio-Fiber from Reliance, India’s first try and buy broadband service. Jio-Fiber provides a one-month free trial. If people do not feel satisfied with the services of Jio-Fiber they can disconnect it after the free trial of 4k Set Top Box. If people want they can change their life with Jio-Fiber’s new plans. This telecom operator provides lots of affordable facilities to Its customers. With Jio-Fiber people can experience unlimited internet on their set-top box with symmetric speed. That means to upload and download speed will be the same.  Active users can upgrade their plans with the new plans.

Reliance Jio FibreNew Jio-Fiber plans are starting from rupees 399 per month. In this plan, customers will get unlimited internet at 30 Mbps whereas, in rupees, 699 per month customers will get internet service at 100 Mbps. The best part is that without any extra cost, with rupees 1500 per month people will get access to 12 paid OTT apps including Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and many more. People can watch their favorite shows, tv channels, movies, devotional content, play games, watch YouTube videos, and everything with new Jio-plans in seconds. People can even do voice search enabled with Jio Remote. Jio also provides an EMI facility. This is the best plan in the telecom industry of India.

Economically providing better internet service is part of Jio’s new plans. In this techno-based era, Indian people can get the chance to afford a broadband connection which was not reachable to lower middle class and the middle class people earlier. New Jio plans can be light on the subscriber’s pocket but also can bring lots of entertainment to the whole family. The Jio-Fiber is also offering unlimited calls apart from unlimited data. Through the partnership with Jio-Fiber subscribers can improve their lifestyle awesomely. The Reliance Jio-Fiber is definitely revolutionizing India’s Broadband where citizens’ of all classes of economy can get benefited.