Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines

Around the world scientists and researchers are analyzing 44 vaccines in clinical sessions on humans, and almost 92 preclinical vaccines are being tested in animals. Almost 150 vaccines for covid-19 are in progress across the world.

Generally, a vaccine takes up to 10 to 15 years to be available in market for public use. Vaccine for mumps is the fastest developed vaccine. This mumps vaccine took 4 years in 1960s era. Developing a vaccine is not an easy task. The vaccine has to go through clinical trials of three phases before they can be released for civil use. After the vaccine is fully developed and passed all the trials then the vaccine is sent to regulatory agency for approval. Well, this is not the end. after the vaccine is approved, there are many aspects to take care like scaling of production and distribution, and also which country should the vaccine be provided and lastly at what price should the vaccine be sold.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is similarly harmonizing international actions to formulate a vaccine, and is expecting to deliver around 2 billion doses of covid-19 vaccine by the end of 2021. Under Operation Warp Speed initiative, the U.S. government sponsored $10 billion and aims to deliver 300 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine by January 2021.

The Trump Government is pressuring the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to rapidly certify a vaccine. It is also propelling states to organize vaccine allotment sites from November 1, 2020. Some researches are saying that these quick decisions may cause a risk.

As of now, there are 29 vaccines in phase I human clinical trials, 14 in phase II trials and 11 vaccines in phase III trials. Below are some of the vaccines developed by important company’s or institutions.

Working with Vaccines

Vaccine Name:  NVX-CoV2373

This vaccine is being developed by Novavax, a biotechnology company in Gaithersburg, Maryland. On September 24, Novavax published that they are entering phase III trials in United Kingdom. The vaccine is given to around 10,000 people.

Vaccine Name: JNJ-78436735

This vaccine is developed by Johnson& Johnson Company. On September 23, Johnson & Johnson declared that they are going to conduct phase III trials for around 60,000 adults from various countries. The trial were paused on October 12 because on of the candidate is affected with unexplained illness.

 Vaccine Name: mRNA-1273

mRNA-1273 vaccine is created by Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health.

Vaccine Name: BNT162b2

This vaccine is also one of the potential vaccine. It is developed by both the Pfizer and BioNTech. There are hopes that the pfizer and biotech will supply around 1.3 billion doses by the ned of 2021. Presently, four US-based companies vaccine are in crucial phase III clinical trials. They are Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and Novavax.

Vaccine Name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222

This vaccine is developed by Oxford University in collaboration with the AstraZeneca, a biopharmaceutical Company. On September 8, AstraZeneca halted the trials because of an unfavorable reaction in one of the participants of U.K. Butler later on September 23 these trains are again resumed in U.K., South Africa, Brazil, and India but still paused in U.S. This vaccine is popularly known asCovishield in India. In India, the serum Institute of India (SII) is working with Oxford and Astrazeneca vaccine and the vaccine is in the final stage of human clinical trials. Phase III trials of this vaccine will be declared in November- December.

Vaccine Name: CoronaVac

This is developed by Sinkvac, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company, in collaboration with Brazilian research center Butantan. This vaccine is also undergoing phase III trails. Sinovac will also conduct phase three trials in Indonesia and Bangladesh. Other Chinese vaccine manufacturers are Cansino Biologics, Sinopharm. These are also under human clinical trials.

Vaccine Name: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

This is an old tuberculosis vaccine. This was developed by the largest child health research institute in Australia, in collaboration with the University of Melbourne. During this BRACE trial scientists are conducting test whether this vaccine will help in protecting people from coronavirus.

Vaccine Name: Sputnik V

Sputnik V Vaccine is developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Moscow. Spot on V was approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on 11 August for use. This vaccine created quite a lot of controversy.

Vaccine Name: Covaxin, Covishield

Coming to india, Covaxin is being developed by Bharat Biotech in association with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It is in Phase 2 clinical trial in the country. In the month of  July, the Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila started experimenting a DNA-based vaccine transmitted through a skin patch. Serum Institue is developing Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and it is called Covishield in India. From the past weeks, the coronavirus infection cases are steeply decreasing and the union Health  minister of India Harsha Vardhan stated that Covid-19 vaccine is expected in the early months of 2021 in India.