WORKING WITH COVID-19 VACCINES GLOBALLY

Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines
Working with Vaccines

Around the world scientists and researchers are analyzing 44 vaccines in clinical sessions on humans, and almost 92 preclinical vaccines are being tested in animals. Almost 150 vaccines for covid-19 are in progress across the world.

Generally, a vaccine takes up to 10 to 15 years to be available in market for public use. Vaccine for mumps is the fastest developed vaccine. This mumps vaccine took 4 years in 1960s era. Developing a vaccine is not an easy task. The vaccine has to go through clinical trials of three phases before they can be released for civil use. After the vaccine is fully developed and passed all the trials then the vaccine is sent to regulatory agency for approval. Well, this is not the end. after the vaccine is approved, there are many aspects to take care like scaling of production and distribution, and also which country should the vaccine be provided and lastly at what price should the vaccine be sold.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is similarly harmonizing international actions to formulate a vaccine, and is expecting to deliver around 2 billion doses of covid-19 vaccine by the end of 2021. Under Operation Warp Speed initiative, the U.S. government sponsored $10 billion and aims to deliver 300 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine by January 2021.

The Trump Government is pressuring the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to rapidly certify a vaccine. It is also propelling states to organize vaccine allotment sites from November 1, 2020. Some researches are saying that these quick decisions may cause a risk.

As of now, there are 29 vaccines in phase I human clinical trials, 14 in phase II trials and 11 vaccines in phase III trials. Below are some of the vaccines developed by important company’s or institutions.

Working with Vaccines

Vaccine Name:  NVX-CoV2373

This vaccine is being developed by Novavax, a biotechnology company in Gaithersburg, Maryland. On September 24, Novavax published that they are entering phase III trials in United Kingdom. The vaccine is given to around 10,000 people.

Vaccine Name: JNJ-78436735

This vaccine is developed by Johnson& Johnson Company. On September 23, Johnson & Johnson declared that they are going to conduct phase III trials for around 60,000 adults from various countries. The trial were paused on October 12 because on of the candidate is affected with unexplained illness.

 Vaccine Name: mRNA-1273

mRNA-1273 vaccine is created by Massachusetts-based biotech company, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health.

Vaccine Name: BNT162b2

This vaccine is also one of the potential vaccine. It is developed by both the Pfizer and BioNTech. There are hopes that the pfizer and biotech will supply around 1.3 billion doses by the ned of 2021. Presently, four US-based companies vaccine are in crucial phase III clinical trials. They are Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and Novavax.

Vaccine Name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222

This vaccine is developed by Oxford University in collaboration with the AstraZeneca, a biopharmaceutical Company. On September 8, AstraZeneca halted the trials because of an unfavorable reaction in one of the participants of U.K. Butler later on September 23 these trains are again resumed in U.K., South Africa, Brazil, and India but still paused in U.S. This vaccine is popularly known asCovishield in India. In India, the serum Institute of India (SII) is working with Oxford and Astrazeneca vaccine and the vaccine is in the final stage of human clinical trials. Phase III trials of this vaccine will be declared in November- December.

Vaccine Name: CoronaVac

This is developed by Sinkvac, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company, in collaboration with Brazilian research center Butantan. This vaccine is also undergoing phase III trails. Sinovac will also conduct phase three trials in Indonesia and Bangladesh. Other Chinese vaccine manufacturers are Cansino Biologics, Sinopharm. These are also under human clinical trials.

Vaccine Name: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

This is an old tuberculosis vaccine. This was developed by the largest child health research institute in Australia, in collaboration with the University of Melbourne. During this BRACE trial scientists are conducting test whether this vaccine will help in protecting people from coronavirus.

Vaccine Name: Sputnik V

Sputnik V Vaccine is developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Moscow. Spot on V was approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on 11 August for use. This vaccine created quite a lot of controversy.

Vaccine Name: Covaxin, Covishield

Coming to india, Covaxin is being developed by Bharat Biotech in association with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It is in Phase 2 clinical trial in the country. In the month of  July, the Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila started experimenting a DNA-based vaccine transmitted through a skin patch. Serum Institue is developing Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and it is called Covishield in India. From the past weeks, the coronavirus infection cases are steeply decreasing and the union Health  minister of India Harsha Vardhan stated that Covid-19 vaccine is expected in the early months of 2021 in India.

FROM A SINGLE COVID-19 CASE TO A MILLION CASES AND THE DOWNTREND

INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status
INDIA Covid-19 Status

The first cases of coronavirus are reported around December 2019 in Wuhan city of Hubei province, China. Several researchers and health scientists expressed that the outbreak of virus may have arisen from pangolins or bats. While others implied that the virus is originated from the Wuhan animal wet market. Putting claims aside, there is no particular evidence or proof for the origin of coronavirus. World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.

Coronaviruses are a group of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) viruses that affect both humans and animals. The SARS Virus which rose hastily during the 2002-2003 period belongs to this family. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is quoted as SARS-CoV. Now, the present Novel coronavirus is named as SARS-CoV-2. The term Covid-19 is a disease that is caused by the coronavirus.

SARS-CoV-2 spreads from one individual to others by human touch or contact. For example, if a COVID-19 infected patient is near you with less than 6 feet distance, then there are high chances for you to get infected.

SYMPTOMS

There are some particularly reported cases where patients are identified to be infected with COVID-19 but the victims don’t possess any of the above-mentioned symptoms. About 80% of patients recovered without undergoing any special treatment.

NORMAL SYMPTOMS

  • Running Nose
  • Fever
  • Dry Cough
  • Tiredness

MODERATE SYMPTOMS

  • Severe headaches
  • Sore Throat
  • Body pains
  • Losing sense of smell or taste
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nasal congestion

SEVERE SYMPTOMS

  • Frequent pain in the chest
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Sometimes

Tracking Covid-19 in INDIA

 China cautioned the WHO about unspecified pneumonia circulating the virus in Wuhan on December 31, 2019. On 7th January 2020 WHO officials published a statement saying that the virus is labelled as 2019n-CoV. The first death from virus took place in China on January 11.

JANUARY, 2020

  • On the 30th of January, the first case reported in India from Kerala and it is a student from Wuhan University. The next 2 days India airlifts Indian citizens from Wuhan including 7 Maldives natives.

FEBRUARY

  • After 2 other cases were reported Kerala govt. declared virus as a state Calamity.
  • On February 4, India cancelled existing visas for foreigners and Chinese Nationals.
  • WHO notified that the infection by this virus is named as COVID-19.
  • On Feb, 19 the first case of the virus tested negative.

MARCH

  • As of 2nd March, two more were reported in Kerala
  • The number of coronavirus cases reached 50 on March 10.
  • March 11 is the day when WHO proclaimed Covid-19 as a pandemic.
  • India experienced first death from the virus on 12th March in Karnataka.
  • In just 4 days, the volume of cases reached 100.
  • On March, 22 ‘Janata Curfew’ came into existence for 14 hours.
  • The lockdown is inflicted on March 25 till April 14.

APRIL

  • The casualties volume crossed 100.
  • The Indian government extended the lockdown till 3rd of May.
  • On April, 29 the death toll surpassed 1000.

MAY

  • The lockdown in India is extended for another 2 weeks on May 1st and based on the proportion of cases the places were divided into red, orange and green zones.
  • 50,000 confirmed coronavirus cases and Phase I of Vande Bharat Mission took place to evacuated citizens from foreign countries.
  • The lockdown is again extended to May 31st by government.
  • On May 19, the COVID-19 cases crossed 1 lakh.

JUNE

  • WHO instructed to wear face masks while going out or in crowded places.
  • On June, 8, the number of cases reached 2,50,00 with 7,200 casualties. Unlock 1.0 appeared into force.
  • India get ahead of UK and became the 4th horribly affected country with cases crossing over 3 lakhs.
  • A total of 5 lakh COVID-19 confirmed cases were reported in India.

JULY

  • On July 1st, Unlock 2.0 came into existence.
  • As of 6th July, USA reported more than 28 lakh cases and Brazil reported around 16 lakh cases. India pushed down Russia and became the Third worst affected country by coronavirus with 6.97 lakh cases.
  • Bharat Biotech Pharmaceutical Company started the first clinical trials of India’s first native vaccine, Covaxin.

AUGUST

  • Unlock 3.0 guidelines came into force on August 1st.
  • Even before the completion of phase III trials of the vaccine, Russia released Sputnik V vaccine for civilian/public use.
  • India reported with more than 3 million COVID-19 cases.
  • On August, 26, clinical trails of covishield were started by Serum Institute.
  • Phase 4.0 unlock protocols are released on August 29.
  • Worldwide COVID-19 cases crossed the mark of 25 million. India reported 78,761 new cases in a single day on August, 30.

SEPTEMBER

  • The first case of reinfection was discovered in the city of Bengaluru.
  • India with a total of 4.1 Million/41.13 lakh cases became 2nd disastrous hit country by coronavirus pushing down Brazil.
  • Clinical trials of ‘Covi-Shield’ by Serum Institute were abruptly stopped due to some unexplained illness.
  • September, 11, alone recorded a total of 97,570 new cases.
  • A total of more than 5 million cases are reported in India and last 1 Million cases are registered in just 11 days and the USA with 6.8 Million cases.
  • Reasonably, more than 1 lakh patients recovered from Covid-19 on September, 22.
  • As of 27, September India reported more than 50 lakh recoveries from COVID-18 COVID-19 and just in 11 days around 10 lakh people were recovered.

Current Status

As of today, 8 October 2020 the horribly affected nations by SARS-CoV-2 are the United States of America with 7.58 Million cases and 212K fatalities, followed by India with 6.76 Million cases and 105K deaths, then Brazil with 5 Million cases and 148K victims. Considering the deaths, Brazil pushes down India and occupies the second place. India is the one and only country which is awfully affected in the whole Asian sub-continent by 2019-nCoV.

Coming to India, the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for more than 60% of total COVID-19 cases. Lakshadweep Islands of India is free from Coronavirus. In the recent days there is a significant fall in the number of cases reported across India.

Covid-19 Downtrend
Covid-19 Downtrend

As we can see in the graph, the number of COVID-19 cases is hastily shrinking since the last 2-3 weeks. The twitter is trending with #IndiaFightsCorona hashtag because of its significant 85% recovery rate. The Indian government and also the citizens of India become aware of the pandemic and are following social distancing rules thoroughly and the result can be seen above with the significant decrease of covid-19 infections and increased recovery rates.

Covid Recovery Rate in India-Story of Hope

India Optimistic

India OptimisticDue to the ongoing Coronavirus (COVID-19) like other countries India is witnessing lots of unimaginable problems. In every state people of different ages started to suffer from coronavirus, many people died because of this, people were too frightened. Our government immediately took many effective steps to increase the recovery rate as well as balance the situation.

A nation-wide lockdown from the midnight of 24th March 2020 was announced by The Indian Prime Minister for lessening the coronavirus impact. For this, citizens controlled their unnecessary movements and only essential services of government and non-government were active. Though unlock 4.0 guidelines had been issued, India is still under lockdown. Nevertheless, India has one of the most coronavirus cases in the world. Fortunately, the best part is that the recovery rate is increasing regularly.

On 3rd September 2020, the number of new cases is 83,833 and the recovery rate is also impressive. Till now total coronavirus cases of India are 3,933,124 whereas, the total recovery number is 3,034,887 and the total death number is 68,659. The recovery rate is 77.16 %. The death rate is also surprisingly on a steady downward process. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) said in a statement that implementation of all the necessary steps, treating immediately and appropriately through a widening medical care infrastructure with the help of the states across the country, etc are the root causes for excellent improvement of the number of recoveries in India.

India OptimisticAccording to his statement, focusing on the proper use of non-invasive oxygen, improved ambulance services, and better-skilled doctors both in the hospitals as well as in ICUs have been confirming the desired results. Besides these steps, some biological and environmental factors are helping to stem the incidence and severity and increase the recovery rate.

Most of India has either tropical (type A) or dry climate (type B). As per reports, high relative humidity and temperature surprisingly reduce COVID-19 transmission and India becomes fortuitous! The protective cross-immunity development in our population against the coronavirus can play a vital role in increasing the recovery rate.

Whatever the reason lies behind the improvement of corona recovery cases, the fact is people of India are overcoming this coronavirus bit by bit. Now people are more careful about the transmission and they are trying to maintain personal hygiene and social distancing norms provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as the Indian Government and trying to adjust the new normal life. In India, even though Covid cases are rising in most of the states, Indians are optimistic about the recovery rate.